首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   1680篇
  免费   351篇
  国内免费   550篇
测绘学   45篇
大气科学   127篇
地球物理   1107篇
地质学   882篇
海洋学   265篇
天文学   3篇
综合类   68篇
自然地理   84篇
  2024年   6篇
  2023年   38篇
  2022年   61篇
  2021年   56篇
  2020年   77篇
  2019年   107篇
  2018年   107篇
  2017年   68篇
  2016年   101篇
  2015年   97篇
  2014年   126篇
  2013年   130篇
  2012年   99篇
  2011年   111篇
  2010年   103篇
  2009年   133篇
  2008年   124篇
  2007年   137篇
  2006年   118篇
  2005年   105篇
  2004年   92篇
  2003年   110篇
  2002年   76篇
  2001年   58篇
  2000年   58篇
  1999年   46篇
  1998年   41篇
  1997年   43篇
  1996年   41篇
  1995年   30篇
  1994年   24篇
  1993年   14篇
  1992年   12篇
  1991年   14篇
  1990年   6篇
  1989年   6篇
  1988年   2篇
  1986年   1篇
  1984年   1篇
  1983年   1篇
  1978年   1篇
排序方式: 共有2581条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
A FORTRAN program, consistent with the commercially available finite element (FE) code ABAQUS, is developed based on a three-dimensional (3D) linear elastic brittle damage constitutive model with two damage criteria. To consider the heterogeneity of rock, the developed FORTRAN program is used to set the stiffness and strength properties of each element of the FE model following a Weibull distribution function. The reliability of the program is assessed against available experimental results for granite cylindrical specimens with a throughgoing, flat and inclined fissure. The calibration procedure of the material parameters is explained in detail, and it is shown that the compressive to tensile strength ratio can have a substantial influence on the failure response of the specimens. Numerical simulations are conducted for models with different levels of heterogeneity. The results show a smaller load bearing capacity for models with less homogeneity, representing gradual coalescence of fully damaged elements forming throughout the models during loading. The maximum load bearing capacity is studied for various combinations of inclination angles of two centrally aligned, throughgoing and flat fissures of equal length embedded in cylindrical models under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions. The key role of the compressive to tensile strength ratio is highlighted by repeating certain simulations with a lower compressive to tensile strength ratio. It is proven that the peak loads of the rock models with sufficiently small compressive to tensile strength ratios containing two throughgoing fissures of equal length are similar, provided that the minimum inclination angles of the models are the same. The results are presented and discussed with respect to the existing experimental findings in the literature, suggesting that the numerical model applied in this study can provide useful insight into the failure behaviour of rock-like materials.  相似文献   
2.
This paper studies dynamic crack propagation by employing the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM) and 3‐dimensional (3D) printing technique. A damage‐plasticity model was developed and implemented in a 2D DLSM. Applicability of the damage‐plasticity DLSM was verified against analytical elastic solutions and experimental results for crack propagation. As a physical analogy, dynamic fracturing tests were conducted on 3D printed specimens using the split Hopkinson pressure bar. The dynamic stress intensity factors were recorded, and crack paths were captured by a high‐speed camera. A parametric study was conducted to find the influences of the parameters on cracking behaviors, including initial and peak fracture toughness, crack speed, and crack patterns. Finally, selection of parameters for the damage‐plasticity model was determined through the comparison of numerical predictions and the experimentally observed cracking features.  相似文献   
3.
The aim of this paper is to formulate a micromechanics‐based approach to non‐aging viscoelastic behavior of materials with randomly distributed micro‐fractures. Unlike cracks, fractures are discontinuities that are able to transfer stresses and can therefore be regarded from a mechanical viewpoint as interfaces endowed with a specific behavior under normal and shear loading. Making use of the elastic‐viscoelastic correspondence principle together with a Mori‐Tanka homogenization scheme, the effective viscoelastic behavior is assessed from properties of the material constituents and damage parameters related to density and size of fractures. It is notably shown that the homogenized behavior thus formulated can be described in most cases by means of a generalized Maxwell rheological model. For practical implementation in structural analyses, an approximate model for the isotropic homogenized fractured medium is formulated within the class of Burger models. Although the approximation is basically developed for short‐term and long‐term behaviors, numerical applications indicate that the approximate Burger model accurately reproduce the homogenized viscoelastic behavior also in the transient conditions.  相似文献   
4.
This paper briefly reviews the formulations used over the last 40 years for the solution of problems involving tensile cracking, with both the discrete and the smeared crack approaches. The paper focuses on the smeared approach, identifying as its main drawbacks the observed mesh‐size and mesh‐bias spurious dependence when the method is applied ‘straightly’. A simple isotropic local damage constitutive model is considered, and the (exponential) softening modulus is regularized according to the material fracture energy and the element size. The continuum and discrete mechanical problems corresponding to both the weak discontinuity (smeared cracks) and the strong discontinuity (discrete cracks) approaches are analysed and the question of propagation of the strain localization band (crack) is identified as the main difficulty to be overcome in the numerical procedure. A tracking technique is used to ensure stability of the solution, attaining the necessary convergence properties of the corresponding discrete finite element formulation. Numerical examples show that the formulation derived is stable and remarkably robust. As a consequence, the results obtained do not suffer from spurious mesh‐size or mesh‐bias dependence, comparing very favourably with those obtained with other fracture and continuum mechanics approaches. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
A new technique designed to help quantify the degree of damage to the landscape from one area to another shows a close relationship between population density and the degree of landscape damage. The technique establishes a scale of damage from 0 to 5 (zero = no damage; 5 = severe damage) using data from aerial photographs, land-use maps, and field data. The related formula allows one to compare the relative degree of damage across regions using a combination of an absolute index, a theoretical index, a relative index, and population density. Xing'an County is used to demonstrate the technique.  相似文献   
6.
A method of structural damage identification using harmonic excitation force is presented. It considers the effects of both measurement and modelling errors in the baseline finite element model. Damage that accompanies changes in structural parameters can be estimated for a damaged structure from the change between measured vibration responses and ones calculated from the analytical model of the intact structure. In practice, modelling errors exist in the analytical model due to material and geometric uncertainties and a reduction in the degrees of freedom as well as measurement errors, making identification difficult. To surmount these problems, bootstrap hypothesis testing, which enables statistical judgment without information about these errors, was introduced. The method was validated by numerical simulation using a three‐dimensional frame structure and real vibration data for a three‐storey steel frame structure. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
In recent years,scholars at home and abroad have method,and that vanous disasters would be analyzed assynthetically studied natural dlsaste‘theoretically and an Integral.SHI Peilun(1991)putforwad a scientificmethodologlcally,as well as its cases analys。s(CND,term—regional disaster system,which Indicates that1987; MA et al,1990; MARBLE,1990; NE et al,the situation of a disaster(calamity loss)results from1999; PATAK et al,1982; SHI,1991;VAN et al,h…  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents a numerical model for predicting the dynamic response of rock mass subjected to large‐scale underground explosion. The model is calibrated against data obtained from large‐scale field tests. The Hugoniot equation of state for rock mass is adopted to calculate the pressure as a function of mass density. A piecewise linear Drucker–Prager strength criterion including the strain rate effect is employed to model the rock mass behaviour subjected to blast loading. A double scalar damage model accounting for both the compression and tension damage is introduced to simulate the damage zone around the charge chamber caused by blast loading. The model is incorporated into Autodyn3D through its user subroutines. The numerical model is then used to predict the dynamic response of rock mass, in terms of the peak particle velocity (PPV) and peak particle acceleration (PPA) attenuation laws, the damage zone, the particle velocity time histories and their frequency contents for large‐scale underground explosion tests. The computed results are found in good agreement with the field measured data; hence, the proposed model is proven to be adequate for simulating the dynamic response of rock mass subjected to large‐scale underground explosion. Extended numerical analyses indicate that, apart from the charge loading density, the stress wave intensity is also affected, but to a lesser extent, by the charge weight and the charge chamber geometry for large‐scale underground explosions. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
This study presents a finite element (FE) micromechanical modelling approach for the simulation of linear and damage‐coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture. Asphalt mixture is a composite material of graded aggregates bound with mastic (asphalt and fine aggregates). The microstructural model of asphalt mixture incorporates an equivalent lattice network structure whereby intergranular load transfer is simulated through an effective asphalt mastic zone. The finite element model integrates the ABAQUS user material subroutine with continuum elements for the effective asphalt mastic and rigid body elements for each aggregate. A unified approach is proposed using Schapery non‐linear viscoelastic model for the rate‐independent and rate‐dependent damage behaviour. A finite element incremental algorithm with a recursive relationship for three‐dimensional (3D) linear and damage‐coupled viscoelastic behaviour is developed. This algorithm is used in a 3D user‐defined material model for the asphalt mastic to predict global linear and damage‐coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture. For linear viscoelastic study, the creep stiffnesses of mastic and asphalt mixture at different temperatures are measured in laboratory. A regression‐fitting method is employed to calibrate generalized Maxwell models with Prony series and generate master stiffness curves for mastic and asphalt mixture. A computational model is developed with image analysis of sectioned surface of a test specimen. The viscoelastic prediction of mixture creep stiffness with the calibrated mastic material parameters is compared with mixture master stiffness curve over a reduced time period. In regard to damage‐coupled viscoelastic behaviour, cyclic loading responses of linear and rate‐independent damage‐coupled viscoelastic materials are compared. Effects of particular microstructure parameters on the rate‐independent damage‐coupled viscoelastic behaviour are also investigated with finite element simulations of asphalt numerical samples. Further study describes loading rate effects on the asphalt viscoelastic properties and rate‐dependent damage behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
油田注水开发是保持地层能量,提高采收率的有效手段.海拉尔地区由于粘土矿物含量高,在开发过程中储层遇水易泥化、坍塌,严重影响油气的有效开采.通过X射线衍射、偏光显微镜观察和扫描电镜分析,确定了海拉尔盆地贝16断块兴安岭群储层自上而下存在三种粘土矿物组合:蒙脱石 高岭石 (绿泥石)→高岭石 伊/蒙间层 伊利石 (绿泥石)→伊利石 绿泥石 绿/蒙间层 伊/蒙间层.粘土总量在9.1%~69.1%之间,由地层浅部到深部呈现由高到低的变化规律.详细研究了水敏性极强的钠蒙脱石及其间层矿物,认为凝灰物质的水解蚀变以及长石和中、酸性岩屑在成岩过程中的次生变化是造成海拉尔地区粘土含量高的主要因素.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号