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1.
《Astroparticle Physics》2002,16(4):183-386
Frequency distributions of local muon densities in high-energy extensive air showers (EAS) are presented as signature of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in the knee region. Together with the gross shower variables like shower core position, angle of incidence, and the shower sizes, the KASCADE experiment is able to measure local muon densities for two different muon energy thresholds. The spectra have been reconstructed for various core distances, as well as for particular subsamples, classified on the basis of the shower size ratio Nμ/Ne. The measured density spectra of the total sample exhibit clear kinks reflecting the knee of the primary energy spectrum. While relatively sharp changes of the slopes are observed in the spectrum of EAS with small values of the shower size ratio, no such feature is detected at EAS of large Nμ/Ne ratio in the energy range of 1–10 PeV. Comparing the spectra for various thresholds and core distances with detailed Monte Carlo simulations the validity of EAS simulations is discussed.  相似文献   
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现行农村信用社存在的出资人所有权虚置、收益权削弱、法人财产权丧失等产权制度缺陷 ,严重阻碍着它的进一步发展。形成这些缺陷的主要原因在于农村信用社产权改革的方向不明和对产权范畴的片面理解 ,因此 ,农村信用社产权制度创新应在清晰界定产权的基础上、向股份制、股份合作制、合作制等多种产权形式的方向发展。  相似文献   
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The economic development in China and the rising of the living standard need to speed up the urbanisa-tion.The development of small towns is an important way to Chinese urbanization.Land use plays a very important role in the development of small towns.However there are many problems in the development of small towns,esp.in land use.The paper first discusses the land problems in the development of small towns.Such as much cultivated land lies idle,under-utilization and waste of land,increasing illegal use of land,unstable contractural relationship for land use.The relationship between the development of small towns and land use is also studied.Then the guidelines for the land system innovations of small towns are put forward.Namely the sustainability of social and economic development,the bal-ance between land reservation and land utilization,the provision of service to village ,agriculture and farmer,the manage-ment of land resource and land assets,the parsimonious andlegal use of land.The basic framework of land system innova-tions of small towns is put forward finally.It include the land replacement policy for small towns and the permanent tenan-cy of farmland,the overall plan for land uses and other plans in harmony,the establishment of a flexible system of land supplies,using land with payments ,the transfer of agricultural land and refining the land law related to the construction of small towns.  相似文献   
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The kinetics of the reactions of C2H radical with ethane (k1), propane (k2), and n-butane (k3) are studied over the temperature range of T = 96-296 K with a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus that utilizes a pulsed laser photolysis-chemiluminescence technique. The C2H decay profiles in the presence of both the alkane reactant and O2 are monitored by the CH(A2Δ) chemiluminescence tracer method. The results, together with available literature data, yield the following Arrhenius expressions: k1(T) = (0.51 ± 0.06) × 10−10 exp[(−76 ± 30)K/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-800 K), k2(T) = (0.98 ± 0.32) × 10−10exp[(−71 ± 60)K/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-361 K), and k3(T) = (1.23 ± 0.26) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-297 K). At T = 296 K, k1 is measured as a function of total pressure and has little or no pressure dependence. The results from this work support a direct hydrogen abstraction mechanism for the title reactions. Implications to the atmospheric chemistry of Titan are discussed.  相似文献   
9.
Paul Withers  S.W Bougher 《Icarus》2003,164(1):14-32
Mars Global Surveyor accelerometer observations of the martian upper atmosphere revealed large variations in density with longitude during northern hemisphere spring at altitudes of 130-160 km, all latitudes, and mid-afternoon local solar times (LSTs). This zonal structure is due to tides from the surface. The zonal structure is stable on timescales of weeks, decays with increasing altitude above 130 km, and is dominated by wave-3 (average amplitude 22% of mean density) and wave-2 (18%) harmonics. The phases of these harmonics are constant with both altitude and latitude, though their amplitudes change significantly with latitude. Near the South Pole, the phase of the wave-2 harmonic changes by 90° with a change of half a martian solar day while the wave-3 phase stays constant, suggesting diurnal and semidiurnal behaviour, respectively. We use a simple application of classical tidal theory to identify the dominant tidal modes and obtain results consistent with those of General Circulation Models. Our method is less rigorous, but simpler, than the General Circulation Models and hence complements them. Topography has a strong influence on the zonal structure.  相似文献   
10.
With the rapid development of space technology, earth observation technology and sky observatory technolo-gy, they have played a more and more important part in monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes in the terres-trial land. In recent years, the related agencies have done the experiments and researches on monitoring and predicting ofearthquakes and volcanoes in the forewarning period by means of many approaches, such as satellite thermal infrared re-mote sensing (TIRS), Global Positioning System (GPS), differential interferometric synthesis aperture radar (D-INSAR),astronomical time-latitude residual anomaly, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), etc. A quite large number of re-search foundation has been built in the fundamental theories and application methods. The experiments and researcheshave shown that these technology is efficient methods for high frequency crust movement. If the existed separate scientificforces and results are possibly assembled together to form a more complete integration monitoring system with the combina-tion of space, sky observation, ground, deep geology and macro anomaly, it will come into a new stage of monitoring andpredicting of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.  相似文献   
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