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1.

R. PALMERI M. L. FREZZOTTI G. GODARD R. J. DAVIES 《Journal of Metamorphic Geology》2009,27(9):685-705

Monocrystalline quartz inclusions in garnet and omphacite from various eclogite samples from the Lanterman Range (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) have been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL), Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and

*in situ*X‐ray (XR) microdiffraction using the synchrotron. A few inclusions, with a clear‐to‐opalescent lustre, show ‘anomalous’ Raman spectra characterized by weak α‐quartz modes, the broadening of the main α‐quartz peak at 465 cm^{?1}, and additional vibrations at 480–485, 520–523 and 608 cm^{?1}. CL and Raman imaging indicate that this ‘anomalous’α‐quartz occurs as relicts within ordinary α‐quartz, and that it was preserved in the internal parts of small quartz inclusions. XR diffraction circular patterns display irregular and broad α‐quartz spots, some of which show an anomalous d‐spacing tightening of ～2%. They also show some very weak, hazy clouds that have d‐spacing compatible with coesite but not with α‐quartz. Raman spectrometry and XR microdiffraction characterize the anomalies with respect to α‐quartz as (i) a pressure‐induced disordering and incipient amorphization, mainly revealed by the 480–485 and 608‐cm^{?1}Raman bands, together with (ii) a lattice densification, evidenced by d‐spacing tightening; (iii) the cryptic development of coesite, 520–523 cm^{?1}being the main Raman peak of coesite and (iv) Brazil micro‐twinning. This ‘anomalous’α‐quartz represents the first example of pressure‐induced incipient amorphization of a metastable phase in a crustal rock. This issue is really surprising because pressure‐induced amorphization of metastable α‐quartz, observed in impactites and known to occur between 15 and 32 GPa during ultrahigh‐pressure (UHP) experiments at room temperature, is in principle irrelevant under normal geological*P–T*conditions. A shock (due to a seism?) or a local overpressure at the inclusion scale (due to expansion mismatch between quartz and its host mineral) seem the only geological mechanisms that can produce such incipient amorphization in crustal rocks. This discovery throws new light on the modality of the quartz‐coesite transition and on the pressure regimes (non‐lithostatic*v.*lithostatic) during high‐pressure/UHP metamorphism. In particular, incipient amorphization of quartz could favour the quartz‐coesite transition, or allow the growth of metastable coesite, as already experimentally observed. 相似文献2.

Stress wave attenuation across fractured rock masses is a great concern of underground structure safety. When the wave amplitude is large, fractures experience nonlinear deformation during the wave propagation. This paper presents a study on normal transmission of P‐wave across parallel fractures with nonlinear deformational behaviour (static Barton–Bandis model). The results show that the magnitude of transmission coefficient is a function of incident wave amplitude, nondimensional fracture spacing and number of fractures. Two important indices of nondimensional fracture spacing are identified, and they divide the area of nondimensional fracture spacing into three parts (individual fracture area, transition area and small spacing area). In the different areas, the magnitude of transmission coefficient has different trends with nondimensional fracture spacing and number of fractures. In addition, the study reveals that under some circumstances, the magnitude of transmission coefficient increases with increasing number of fractures, and is larger than 1. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

3.

T. H. BELL S. E. JOHNSON B. DAVIS A. FORDE N. HAYWARD C. WILKINS 《Journal of Metamorphic Geology》1992,10(3):295-307

Extensive examination of large numbers of spatially orientated thin sections of orientated samples from orogens of all ages around the world has demonstrated that porphyroblasts do not rotate relative to geographical coordinates during highly non-coaxial ductile deformation of the matrix subsequent to their growth. This has been demonstrated for all tectonic environments so far investigated. The work also has provided new insights and data on metamorphic, structural and tectonic processes including: (1) the intimate control of deformation partitioning on metamorphic reactions; (2) solutions to the lack of correlation between lineations that indicate the direction of movement within thrusts and shear zones, and relative plate motion; and (3) a possible technique for determining the direction of relative plate motion that caused orogenesis in ancient orogens. 相似文献

4.

We have developed a method for analytically solving the porous medium flow equation in many different geometries for horizontal (two‐dimensional), homogeneous and isotropic aquifers containing impermeable boundaries and any number of pumping or injection wells located at arbitrary positions within the system. Solutions and results are presented for rectangular and circular aquifers but the method presented here is easily extendible to many geometries. Results are also presented for systems where constant head boundary conditions can be emulated internal to the aquifer boundary. Recommendations for extensions of the present work are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

5.

The finite‐element formulation and integration algorithms developed in Part I are used to analyse a number of practical problems involving unsaturated and saturated soils. The formulation and algorithms perform well for all the cases analysed, with the robustness of the latter being largely insensitive to user‐defined parameters such as the number of coarse time steps and error control tolerances. The efficiency of the algorithms, as measured by the CPU time consumed, does not depend on the number of coarse time steps, but may be influenced by the error control tolerances. Based on the analyses presented here, typical values for the error control tolerances are suggested. It is also shown that the constitutive modelling framework presented in Part I can, by adjusting one constitutive equation and one or two material parameters, be used to simulate soils that expand or collapse upon wetting. Treating the suction as a strain variable instead of a stress variable proves to be an efficient and robust way of solving suction‐dependent plastic yielding. Moreover, the concept of the constitutive stress is a particularly convenient way of handling the transition between saturation and unsaturation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

6.

Moche Ziv 《国际地质力学数值与分析法杂志》2003,27(3):207-232

The response of an ideal elastic half‐space to a line‐concentrated impulsive vector shear force applied momentarily is obtained by an analytical–numerical computational method based on the theory of characteristics in conjunction with kinematical relations derived across surfaces of strong discontinuities. The shear force is concentrated along an infinite line, drawn on the surface of the half‐space, while being normal to that line as well as to the axis of symmetry of the half‐space. An exact loading model is introduced and built into the computational method for this shear force. With this model, a compatibility exists among the prescribed applied force, the geometric decay of the shear stress component at the precursor shear wave, and the boundary conditions of the half‐space; in this sense, the source configuration is exact. For the transient boundary‐value problem described above, a wave characteristics formulation is presented, where its differential equations are extended to allow for strong discontinuities which occur in the material motion of the half‐space. A numerical integration of these extended differential equations is then carried out in a three‐dimensional spatiotemporal wavegrid formed by the Cartesian bicharacteristic curves of the wave characteristics formulation. This work is devoted to the construction of the computational method and to the concepts involved therein, whereas the interpretation of the resultant transient deformation of the half‐space is presented in a subsequent paper. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

7.

A discrete element modelling of bonded granulates and investigation on the bond effect on their behaviour are very important to geomechanics. This paper presents a two‐dimensional (2‐D) discrete element theory for bonded granulates with bond rolling resistance and provides a numerical investigation into the effect of bond rolling resistance on the yielding of bonded granulates. The model consists of mechanical contact models and equations governing the motion of bonded particles. The key point of the theory is that the assumption in the original bond contact model previously proposed by the authors (

*55th CSCE‐ASCE Conference*, Hamilton, Ont., Canada, 2002; 313–320;*J. Eng. Mech.*(ASCE) 2005; 131 (11):1209–1213) that bonded particles are in contact at discrete points, is here replaced by a more reliable assumption that bonded particles are in contact over a width. By making the idealization that the bond contact width is continuously distributed with the normal/tangential basic elements (BE) (each BE is composed of spring, dashpot, bond, slider or divider), we establish a bond rolling contact model together with bond normal/tangential contact models, and also relate the governing equations to local equilibrium. Only one physical parameter*β*needs to be introduced in the theory in comparison to the original bond discrete element model. The model has been implemented into a 2‐D distinct element method code, NS2D. Using the NS2D, a total of 86 1‐D, constant stress ratio, and biaxial compressions tests have been carried out on the bonded granular samples of different densities, bonding strengths and rolling resistances. The numerical results show that: (i) the new theory predicts a larger internal friction angle, a larger yielding stress, more brittle behaviour and larger final broken contact ratio than the original bond model; (ii) the yielding stress increases nonlinearly with the increasing value of*β*, and (iii) the first‐yield curve (initiation of bond breakage), which define a zone of none bond breakage and which shape and size are affected by the material density, is amplified by the bond rolling resistance in analogous to that predicted by the original bond model. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献8.

It is well known that the Babuska–Brezzi stability criterion or the Zienkiewicz–Taylor patch test precludes the use of the finite elements with the same low order of interpolation for displacement and pore pressure in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases, unless some stabilization techniques are introduced for dynamic analysis of saturated porous medium where coupling occurs between the displacement of solid skeleton and pore pressure. The numerical manifold method (NMM), where the interpolation of displacement and pressure can be determined independently in an element for the solution of

*u*–*p*formulation, is derived based on triangular mesh for the requirement of high accurate calculations from practical applications in the dynamic analysis of saturated porous materials. The matrices of equilibrium equations for the second‐order displacement and the first‐order pressure manifold method are given in detail for program coding. By close comparison with widely used finite element method, the NMM presents good stability for the coupling problems, particularly in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the validity and stability of the manifold element developed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献9.

The study of the chemical stability of vitreous material in aqueous media is well‐established. There has to date been little consideration of the implications of variations in the chemical durability of tephra in Quaternary tephrochronology. Chemical alteration can take the form of cationic leaching from the matrix, or complete destruction of the silica network, either of which could constrain the ability to chemically identify distal tephra. Here we apply established models of vitreous durability to the published chemical analyses of a large number of Icelandic tephras in order to predict their relative durabilities under equivalent conditions. This suggests that some important tephras have relatively poor chemical stability, and that rhyolitic tephras are, in general, more stable than basaltic. We conclude that tephras should be expected to show predictable differential chemical stability in the post‐depositional environment. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

10.

Donald C. Gordon Peter J. Cranford Con Desplanque 《Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science》1985,20(2):205-227

The Cumberland Basin, a 118 km

^{2}estuary at the head of the Bay of Fundy which has an average tidal range of about 11m, contains large tracts of salt marsh (15% of the area below highest high water). Low marsh (below about 0·9 m above mean high water) is composed almost exclusively of*Spartina alterniflora*while the vegetation on high marsh is more diverse but dominated by*Spartina patens*. Because of its higher elevation, high marsh is flooded infrequently for short periods by only extreme high tides. Low marsh is inundated much more frequently by water as much as 4m deep for periods as long as 4 h per tide. Temporal variability in the occurrence of extreme tides influences the flooding frequency of high marsh for any given month and year. Using a modification of Smalley's method, the mean annual net aerial primary production (NAPP) of low and high marsh is estimated to be 272 and 172 g C m^{?2}, respectively. Vegetation turnover times average 1·0 and 2·0 y for low and high marsh, respectively. Because of abundant tidal energy, much of the low marsh production appears to be exported and distributed widely about the estuary. Since high levels of turbidity suppress phytoplankton production, salt marshes produce approximately half of the carbon fixed photosynthetically in the Cumberland Basin. It is concluded that salt marshes play a major ecological role in the Cumberland Basin. 相似文献