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1.

Parametric transduction offers valuable advantages for underwater acoustic communications. Perhaps the most significant benefit is the fact that high directivity is achieved by means of a physically small transmit transducer. This feature may, ultimately, be employed to permit long-range, low-frequency communication using a compact source. The high directivity is desirable to combat multipath propagation and to achieve data communications in water which is shallow by comparison with range. A real-time, high data-rate “model” differential phase shift keying (DPSK) communication system has been constructed and demonstrated. This system uses parametric transduction, with a 300-kHz primary frequency and a 50-kHz secondary frequency. Experimental results show that the system can be employed to combat multipath propagation in shallow water and can achieve high data-rate text and color image transmission at 10 and 20 kb s

^{-1}for 2-DPSK and 4-DPSK, respectively, through a transmission bandwidth of 10 kHz. The “model” system was developed to confirm performance predictions for a future, operational long-range link employing a 50-kHz primary frequency and a 5-kHz secondary frequency 相似文献2.

Vertical drains are usually installed in subsoil consisting of several layers. Due to the complex nature of the problem, over the past decades, the consolidation properties of multi‐layered ground with vertical drains have been analysed mainly by numerical methods. An analytical solution for consolidation of double‐layered ground with vertical drains under quasi‐equal strain condition is presented in this paper. The main steps for the computation procedure are listed. The convergence of the series solution is discussed. The comparisons between the results obtained by the present analytical method and the existing numerical solutions are described by figures. The orthogonal relation for the system of double‐layered ground with vertical drains is proven. Finally, some consolidation properties of double‐layered ground with vertical drains are analysed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

3.

4.

A numerical scheme is developed in order to simulate fluid flow in three dimensional (3‐D) microstructures. The governing equations for steady incompressible flow are solved using the semi‐implicit method for pressure‐linked equations (SIMPLE) finite difference scheme within a non‐staggered grid system that represents the 3‐D microstructure. This system allows solving the governing equations using only one computational cell. The numerical scheme is verified through simulating fluid flow in idealized 3‐D microstructures with known closed form solutions for permeability. The numerical factors affecting the solution in terms of convergence and accuracy are also discussed. These factors include the resolution of the analysed microstructure and the truncation criterion. Fluid flow in 2‐D X‐ray computed tomography (CT) images of real porous media microstructure is also simulated using this numerical model. These real microstructures include field cores of asphalt mixes, laboratory linear kneading compactor (LKC) specimens, and laboratory Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) specimens. The numerical results for the permeability of the real microstructures are compared with the results from closed form solutions. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

5.

A formula for the thickness of a shear band formed in saturated soils under a simple shear or a combined stress state has been proposed. It is shown that the shear band thickness is dependent on the pore pressure properties of the material and the dilatancy rate, but is independent of the details of the combined stress state. This is in accordance with some separate experimental observations. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

6.

This paper deals with the formation processes and the palaeoenvironmental significance of relict slope deposits located on the uppermost part of the north Portugal mountains. For this purpose, seven key sites representative of the different lithofacies have been selected and analysed in detail. The data show that three main dynamic processes are responsible for the emplacement of regional fossil slope deposits: runoff, debris flows and dry grain flows. The ubiquity of these processes and the lack of frost‐related features or landforms do not support the existence of severe Pleistocene climates in this part of the lberian Peninsula as postulated by previous work. Pedological data gathered at one of the study sites show that a subalpine environment was probably present at 700–800 m altitude between 29 and 14 kyr. Using data from the Pyrenees Mountains, a 6.5 to 12°C depression in mean annual temperature has been tentatively postulated for this Pleniglacial period. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

7.

8.

The ordinary kriging method, a geostatistical interpolation technique, was applied for developing contour maps of design storm depth in northern Taiwan using intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) data. Results of variogram modelling on design storm depths indicate that the design storms can be categorized into two distinct storm types: (i) storms of short duration and high spatial variation and (ii) storms of long duration and less spatial variation. For storms of the first category, the influence range of rainfall depth decreases when the recurrence interval increases, owing to the increasing degree of their spatial independence. However, for storms of the second category, the influence range of rainfall depth does not change significantly and has an average of approximately 72 km. For very extreme events, such as events of short duration and long recurrence interval, we do not recommend usage of the established design storm contours, because most of the interstation distances exceed the influence ranges. Our study concludes that the influence range of the design storm depth is dependent on the design duration and recurrence interval and is a key factor in developing design storm contours. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

9.

Using the basic Boussinesq's equation, the expression for the vertical stress distribution (σ

_{z}) underneath any point on the ground surface due to a general triangular loaded region in a preferred orientation with a linearly varied loading has been successfully derived. When the triangle is not in a preferred orientation, a simple axis transformation is required and the expression will be equally applicable. Based on this expression, σ_{z}due to an arbitrarily shaped loaded foundation can simply be determined by first triangulating the loaded area and summing up the contributions from each generated triangular region. The procedures for triangulating and calculating the stress distribution can be simply automated through computer programs. 相似文献10.

In many areas of engineering practice, applied loads are not uniformly distributed but often concentrated towards the centre of a foundation. Thus, loads are more realistically depicted as distributed as linearly varying or as parabola of revolution. Solutions for stresses in a transversely isotropic half‐space caused by concave and convex parabolic loads that act on a rectangle have not been derived. This work proposes analytical solutions for stresses in a transversely isotropic half‐space, induced by three‐dimensional, buried, linearly varying/uniform/parabolic rectangular loads. Load types include an upwardly and a downwardly linearly varying load, a uniform load, a concave and a convex parabolic load, all distributed over a rectangular area. These solutions are obtained by integrating the point load solutions in a Cartesian co‐ordinate system for a transversely isotropic half‐space. The buried depth, the dimensions of the loaded area, the type and degree of material anisotropy and the loading type for transversely isotropic half‐spaces influence the proposed solutions. An illustrative example is presented to elucidate the effect of the dimensions of the loaded area, the type and degree of rock anisotropy, and the type of loading on the vertical stress in the isotropic/transversely isotropic rocks subjected to a linearly varying/uniform/parabolic rectangular load. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献