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1.
Water quality is often highly variable both in space and time, which poses challenges for modelling the more extreme concentrations. This study developed an alternative approach to predicting water quality quantiles at individual locations. We focused on river water quality data that were collected over 25 years, at 102 catchments across the State of Victoria, Australia. We analysed and modelled spatial patterns of the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the concentrations of sediments, nutrients and salt, with six common constituents: total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite (NOx), and electrical conductivity (EC). To predict the spatial variation of each quantile for each constituent, we developed statistical regression models and exhaustively searched through 50 catchment characteristics to identify the best set of predictors for that quantile. The models predict the spatial variation in individual quantiles of TSS, TKN and EC well (66%–96% spatial variation explained), while those for TP, FRP and NOx have lower performance (37%–73% spatial variation explained). The most common factors that influence the spatial variations of the different constituents and quantiles are: annual temperature, percentage of cropping land area in catchment and channel slope. The statistical models developed can be used to predict how low- and high-concentration quantiles change with landscape characteristics, and thus provide a useful tool for catchment managers to inform planning and policy making with changing climate and land use conditions.  相似文献   
2.
Summary. Four box cores collected from the Ontong—Java plateau during the Eurydice expedition have been used to make relative geomagnetic palaeo-intensity measurements. Rock magnetic measurements on the sediments show that they are characterized by a uniform magnetic mineralogy, and that they are suitable for relative intensity estimates. These are obtained by normalizing the NRM by an ARM imparted in a low DC bias field. the palaeoceanographic event known as the preservation spike is used to establish a crude time-scale for the record so that it may be compared with other data from the same region, and also with global palaeointensity estimates. the marine sediment data are quite similar to Australian intensity data from lake sediments and archaeomagnetic sources, but as might be expected exhibit some obvious differences from the global record.  相似文献   
3.
莱州湾南岸潍河下游地区咸水入侵灾害成因及特征   总被引:8,自引:1,他引:7  
通过对莱州湾南岸咸水入侵较严重地潍河下游地区晚更新世以来沉积特征及现代自然环境条件变化的分析,探讨了沉积相对咸水入侵产生及空间范围特征的环境机理。晚更新世以来的三次海平面升降变化造成了潍河下游地区海陆沉积环境交替,形成了巨厚的海陆交互相沉积层。海进时期,大面积的滨海平原被淹没,在近海平原洼地滞留的海水经过蒸发、浓缩变为卤水,成为咸水入侵的物源;海退后陆源碎屑在滨海地区沉积形成了巨厚的古河道砂层。20世纪70年代末期以来,随着对地下淡水的过度开采,淡咸水水头压力差减小.卤水通过古河道砂层快速南侵。通过对潍河下游地区100余个地质钻孔水化学连续监测资料分析,阐明了咸水入侵的特征,有针对性地提出了咸水入侵的防治措施。  相似文献   
4.
5.
Sdsealbedoisdefinedasaratioofreflectivesolarradiationtototalacradiation,whichcanindicatetheaborptionandreflectivecapabilityofthe~hforsolarradiation.Itisan~tfactortoinfluencethes~radiationbalance,espeiallyfortheformationandvariationoflocalndcroclirnate.Generally,theactualdatafromo~tionalstationSforrebationareedintheanalysisofsolacealal.HOwever,therepresentativenessOfthedateisIratedduetothescarcityofobservationalstationandunevendistributionofs~condition.Afterthe1960s,theanalysisfors~ealbedoise…  相似文献   
6.
讨论了应用曲面拟合技术和利用离散的重力观测点的重力变化对特定研究区的重力场变化进行数值模拟以获取该区重力变化空间梯度场图像的具体方法;并应用该方法获得了2004年3月福建安溪3.6级地震前的重力变化空间梯度场图像,发现空间梯度场图像能清晰地反映出地震前重力场群体性变化的差异性;利用此方法对2005年6月~2006年3月间台湾海峡西岸重力场变化进行数值模拟,获得其空间梯度场图像。  相似文献   
7.
应用GPS观测青藏高原东北缘应力场变化   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
采用各向同性弹性地球模型推导了地面位移场速率与地壳内任意点应力场变化的边界积分关系,同时利用青藏高原东北缘1999~2001年观测的GPS资料对观测区地壳深度为5 km和25 km的主应力和最大剪应力进行了计算分析.结果表明,青藏高原东北缘的主应力变化主要集中在祁连山断裂、海原断裂等,在1920~1954年间历史上发生过多次震级为7.0~8.5级强震的断裂附近,并具有主应力变化沿断层走向分布、最大剪应力沿断层走向交替变化等特征.  相似文献   
8.
REGIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper analyzes the surprisingly great variation in demographic character across the states, utilizing data on fertility, mortality, age, sex, mobility, household character, abortion, race and ethnicity. A fairly simple regional pattern is revealed that is less related to levels of economic development than to long-standing historical cultural differences.  相似文献   
9.
The number of black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) in the Clyde Estuary is large. In summer the average density has reached 1350 gulls km?2 and in winter 180 gulls km?2. This paper compares prey selection and feeding efficiency in gulls during summer and winter on tidal flats, and considers how seasonal differences may be adaptations to cope with seasonal changes in prey availability.Gross and net rates of energy intake were highest in summer because gulls captured more of the polychaete N. diversicolor than the amphipod C. volutator. In winter, gulls selected for C. volutator and therefore an energetically less profitable diet. Throughout the year gulls selected more C. volutator relative to N. diversicolor than expected on energetic grounds and so apparently did not maximize potential net rate of energy intake.Gulls used three techniques to capture prey and made most intensive use of the ‘crouch’ technique. Crouching gulls attained a much higher net rate of energy intake than ‘upright’ or ‘paddling’ gulls.A log-linear model showed that (a) season, water depth and gull density determined feeding technique and (b) feeding technique and season independently determined foraging success and prey selection. Thus gull density and water depth acted on prey selection through imposed variations in feeding technique.Reasons for gulls selecting energetically unprofitable C. volutator and for the use of several distinct feeding techniques are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
In the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa, particulate organic carbon (POC) varied from 0.52 to 2.51 mg l?1 and from 0.28 to 5.24 mg l?1 and particulate phosphorus (PP) varied from 0.71 to 5.18 μg l?1 and from 0.78 to 20.34 μg l?1, respectively. The mean values of chlorophyll and primary productivity were 1.94 mg m?3 and 938.1 mg C m?2 day?1 in the coastal waters and 4.3 mg m?3 and 636.5 mg C m?1 day?1 in the estuarine waters, respectively.POCchl ratios were low in June and October even when POC values were quite high. The POC in surface waters was linearly correlated with the chlorophyll content. Also PP increased when chlorophyll and primary productivity remained high. The results suggest that the phytoplankton was sharply increasing and contributed to POC and PP content. The percentage of detritus calculated from the intercept values of chlorophyll on POC varied from 46 to 76% depending on season. Results indicate that the major portion of POC and PP during postmonsoon (October–January) is derived from phytoplankton production while the allochthonous matter predominate during monsoon (June–September).  相似文献   
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