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1.

A discrete element modelling of bonded granulates and investigation on the bond effect on their behaviour are very important to geomechanics. This paper presents a two‐dimensional (2‐D) discrete element theory for bonded granulates with bond rolling resistance and provides a numerical investigation into the effect of bond rolling resistance on the yielding of bonded granulates. The model consists of mechanical contact models and equations governing the motion of bonded particles. The key point of the theory is that the assumption in the original bond contact model previously proposed by the authors (

*55th CSCE‐ASCE Conference*, Hamilton, Ont., Canada, 2002; 313–320;*J. Eng. Mech.*(ASCE) 2005; 131 (11):1209–1213) that bonded particles are in contact at discrete points, is here replaced by a more reliable assumption that bonded particles are in contact over a width. By making the idealization that the bond contact width is continuously distributed with the normal/tangential basic elements (BE) (each BE is composed of spring, dashpot, bond, slider or divider), we establish a bond rolling contact model together with bond normal/tangential contact models, and also relate the governing equations to local equilibrium. Only one physical parameter*β*needs to be introduced in the theory in comparison to the original bond discrete element model. The model has been implemented into a 2‐D distinct element method code, NS2D. Using the NS2D, a total of 86 1‐D, constant stress ratio, and biaxial compressions tests have been carried out on the bonded granular samples of different densities, bonding strengths and rolling resistances. The numerical results show that: (i) the new theory predicts a larger internal friction angle, a larger yielding stress, more brittle behaviour and larger final broken contact ratio than the original bond model; (ii) the yielding stress increases nonlinearly with the increasing value of*β*, and (iii) the first‐yield curve (initiation of bond breakage), which define a zone of none bond breakage and which shape and size are affected by the material density, is amplified by the bond rolling resistance in analogous to that predicted by the original bond model. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献2.

It is well known that the Babuska–Brezzi stability criterion or the Zienkiewicz–Taylor patch test precludes the use of the finite elements with the same low order of interpolation for displacement and pore pressure in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases, unless some stabilization techniques are introduced for dynamic analysis of saturated porous medium where coupling occurs between the displacement of solid skeleton and pore pressure. The numerical manifold method (NMM), where the interpolation of displacement and pressure can be determined independently in an element for the solution of

*u*–*p*formulation, is derived based on triangular mesh for the requirement of high accurate calculations from practical applications in the dynamic analysis of saturated porous materials. The matrices of equilibrium equations for the second‐order displacement and the first‐order pressure manifold method are given in detail for program coding. By close comparison with widely used finite element method, the NMM presents good stability for the coupling problems, particularly in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the validity and stability of the manifold element developed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献3.

A. G. Nikoghossian 《Astrophysics》2004,47(3):412-421

The approach proposed in the previous parts of this series of papers is used to solve the radiative transfer problem in scattering and absorbing multicomponent atmospheres. Linear recurrence relations are obtained for both the reflectance and transmittance of these kinds of atmospheres, as well as for the emerging intensities when the atmosphere contains energy sources. Spectral line formation in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous atmosphere is examined as an illustration of the possibility of generalizing our approach to the matrix case. It is shown that, in this case as well, the question reduces to solving an initial value problem for linear differential equations. Some numerical calculations are presented. 相似文献

4.

Due to the geological time scales required for observation of catchment evolution, surrogates or analogues of field data are necessary to understand long‐term processes. To investigate long‐term catchment behaviour, two experimental model catchments that developed without rigid boundaries under controlled conditions are examined and a qualitative and quantitative analysis of their evolution is presented. Qualitatively, the experimental catchments have the visual appearance of field scale data. Observation demonstrates that changes in catchment shape and network form are conservative. Quantitative analysis suggests that the catchments reach an equilibrium form while a reduction in the channel network occurs. While the catchments are laboratory scale models, the results provide insights into field scale behaviour. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

5.

J'erôme P'etri 《Astrophysics and Space Science》2006,302(1-4):117-139

This is the second of a series of papers aimed to look for an explanation on the generation of high frequency quasi-periodic
oscillations (QPOs) in accretion disks around neutron star, black hole, and white dwarf binaries. The model is inspired by
the general idea of a resonance mechanism in the accretion disk oscillations as was already pointed out by Abramowicz and
Klu’zniak (2001). In a first paper (P'etri, 2005a, paper I), we showed that a rotating misaligned magnetic field of a neutron
star gives rise to some resonances close to the inner edge of the accretion disk. In this second paper, we suggest that this
process does also exist for an asymmetry in the gravitational potential of the compact object. We prove that the same physics
applies, at least in the linear stage of the response to the disturbance in the system. This kind of asymmetry is well suited
for neutron stars or white dwarfs possessing an inhomogeneous interior allowing for a deviation from a perfectly spherically
symmetric gravitational field. After a discussion on the magnitude of this deformation applied to neutron stars, we show by
a linear analysis that the disk initially in a cylindrically symmetric stationary state is subject to {three kinds of resonances:
a corotation resonance, a Lindblad resonance due to a driven force and a parametric resonance}. In a second part, we focus
on the linear response of a thin accretion disk in the 2D limit. {Waves are launched at the aforementioned resonance positions
and propagate in some permitted regions inside the disk, according to the dispersion relation obtained by a WKB analysis}.
In a last part, these results are confirmed and extended via non linear hydrodynamical numerical simulations performed with
a pseudo-spectral code solving Euler's equations in a 2D cylindrical coordinate frame. {We found that for a weak potential
perturbation, the Lindblad resonance is the only effective mechanism producing a significant density fluctuation}. In a last
step, we replaced the Newtonian potential by the so called logarithmically modified pseudo-Newtonian potential in order to
take into account some general-relativistic effects like the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). The latter potential
is better suited to describe the close vicinity of a neutron star or a black hole. However, from a qualitative point of view,
the resonance conditions remain the same. The highest kHz QPOs are then interpreted as the orbital frequency of the disk at
locations where the response to the resonances are maximal. It is also found that strong gravity is not required to excite
the resonances. 相似文献

6.

Large scale geomechanical simulations are being increasingly used to model the compaction of stress dependent reservoirs, predict the long term integrity of under‐ground radioactive waste disposals, and analyse the viability of hot‐dry rock geothermal sites. These large scale simulations require the definition of homogenous mechanical properties for each geomechanical cell whereas the rock properties are expected to vary at a smaller scale. Therefore, this paper proposes a new methodology that makes possible to define the equivalent mechanical properties of the geomechanical cells using the fine scale information given in the geological model. This methodology is implemented on a synthetic reservoir case and two upscaling procedures providing the effective elastic properties of the Hooke's law are tested. The first upscaling procedure is an analytical method for perfectly stratified rock mass, whereas the second procedure computes lower and upper bounds of the equivalent properties with no assumption on the small scale heterogeneity distribution. Both procedures are applied to one geomechanical cell extracted from the reservoir structure. The results show that the analytical and numerical upscaling procedures provide accurate estimations of the effective parameters. Furthermore, a large scale simulation using the homogenized properties of each geomechanical cell calculated with the analytical method demonstrates that the overall behaviour of the reservoir structure is well reproduced for two different loading cases. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

7.

This paper presents a numerical model for predicting the dynamic response of rock mass subjected to large‐scale underground explosion. The model is calibrated against data obtained from large‐scale field tests. The Hugoniot equation of state for rock mass is adopted to calculate the pressure as a function of mass density. A piecewise linear Drucker–Prager strength criterion including the strain rate effect is employed to model the rock mass behaviour subjected to blast loading. A double scalar damage model accounting for both the compression and tension damage is introduced to simulate the damage zone around the charge chamber caused by blast loading. The model is incorporated into Autodyn3D through its user subroutines. The numerical model is then used to predict the dynamic response of rock mass, in terms of the peak particle velocity (PPV) and peak particle acceleration (PPA) attenuation laws, the damage zone, the particle velocity time histories and their frequency contents for large‐scale underground explosion tests. The computed results are found in good agreement with the field measured data; hence, the proposed model is proven to be adequate for simulating the dynamic response of rock mass subjected to large‐scale underground explosion. Extended numerical analyses indicate that, apart from the charge loading density, the stress wave intensity is also affected, but to a lesser extent, by the charge weight and the charge chamber geometry for large‐scale underground explosions. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 相似文献

8.

9.

J. William Miller Jr. 《Mathematical Geology》1991,23(2):201-218

A computer simulation method has been developed to find efficient drilling grids for mineral deposits. A well-known ore deposit is used as a model to develop an efficient pattern for undiscovered ore bodies in the same area or in other prospects where similar geometry is suspected. The model for this study is the Austinville, Virginia deposit, a Mississippi Valley-type deposit composed of 17 ore bodies totaling 34 million short tons (30 million metric tons). The method employs a computer program that simulates drilling the model deposit with different patterns, including various levels of follow-up drilling. Follow-up holes are drilled in fences at one half the original spacing around holes in the grid that show ore-grade mineralization. Each pattern is drilled 100 times from random starting locations to provide a range of outcomes of drilling, including the best, worst, and most likely. For this study, patterns of 100 drill holes were composed of 10 fences spaced 1000–5000 feet (305–1524 m) apart, each with 10 holes spaced 200–1000 feet (61–305 m) apart. In all, 25 grids were used with zero to three levels of follow-up drilling. The 600/2000 grid, with drill holes spaced 600 feet (183 m) apart in fences spaced 2000 feet (610 m) apart, was compared with the 200/5000 grid because they represented contrasting outcomes. The 600/2000 grid penetrated many ore bodies consistently but with few multiple hits to individual ore bodies; whereas the 200/5000 grid inconsistently penetrated few ore bodies with many multiple hits. The 600/2000 grid was more efficient than the 200/5000 grid at hitting large ore bodies of 1,000,000 short tons or greater (900,000 metric tons or greater) and was made more effective by adding one cycle of follow-up drilling. The 600/2000 grid had a 97% chance of hitting one or more large ore bodies with at least one drill hole per ore body, and the 200/5000 grid had a 64% chance. Once hit, there was an 82% chance that the largest ore body would be penetrated by three or more holes when using the 600/2000 grid and an 88% chance using the 200/5000 grid. 相似文献

10.

G. Hahn C. -I. Lagerkvist B. A. Lindblad 《Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy》1993,56(1-2):131-141

By using the

*D*-criterion Lindblad (1992) has identified 14 asteroid families from a sample of 4100 numbered asteroids with proper elements from Milani and Kneevi (1990). Taxonomic types and other physical properties for a significant number of objects in five of the families show strong homogeneity within each family, further strengthening their internal relationship.To test the hypothesis of a common origin in, e.g., a catastrophic collision event, we have set out to integrate the orbits of the members of the Maria, Dora and Oppavia-Gefion families over some 10^{6}years. The mean distance for the Maria family is close to the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter, while the other two families lie close to the 5:2 resonance.We used a simplified solar system model which included the perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn only and implemented Everhart's variable stepsize integrator RA15. All close encounters between the family members (within 0.1 AU) were recorded as well. Preliminary results from integrations over 4×10^{5}years are presented here.The statistics of close encounters show pronounced peaks for several members within each family, while for others no significant levels above the background of random encounters or even very low frequencies were found. This indicates a subclustering within the families. Quite a lot of very close (<0.005 AU) mutual encounters are found, which suggest that, at least for the larger members in a family, the mutual gravitational interactions could be of some importance for the real orbital evolutions.The encounter statistics between the Dora and Oppavia family members suggest a possible interrelationship between this two groups. 相似文献