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1.
In this study, the 14N:15N ratio of suspended particulate material collected from the Tamar river estuary, south-west England, is described. Three populations of particles, distinguishable by their 15N content, were observed. This investigation has shown that populations of estuarine particles are generated by biological transformations in situ and that the 15N content of estuarine particles does not merely reflect hydrodynamic mixing of the freshwater and seawater source particulate material.  相似文献   
2.
Surface waters of Alsea Bay, an unpolluted estuary on the Oregon coast, were analysed for nitrous oxide, nitrate and nitrite on a weekly or biweekly basis during the summer of 1979. The estuary was found to be a variable source of N2O to the atmosphere. Large and rapid increases in the concentrations of N2O, NO3?, and NO2? occurred at the beginning of the sampling period and are attributed to the influx of nutrient-rich upwelling water into the estuary with the tide. The subsequent decline in concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide over the remainder of the summer is attributed to a decrease in upwelling intensity, a decline in nitrification rates and to assimilatory nitrate reduction. Measurements of nitrous oxide at six stations along the Alsea River were also made in September and October before and after the onset of the rainy season. Samples taken after flood conditions were established were systematically 50% higher than pre-flood samples. The data suggest that soil runoff results in elevated concentrations of N2O in rivers.  相似文献   
3.
Vertical measurements of NH4+, NO3? and N2O concentrations, NO3? and NH4+ uptake, and NH4+ oxidation rates were measured at 5 sites in western Cook Strait, New Zealand, between 31 March and 3 April 1983. Nitrate increased with depth at all stations reaching a maximum of 10.5 μg-atom NO3?N l?1 at the most strongly stratified station whereas NH4+ was relatively constant with depth at all stations (~0.1 μg-atom NH4+N l?1). The highest rates of NH4+ oxidation generally occurred in the near surface waters and decreased with depth. N2O levels were near saturation with respect to the air above the sea surface and showed no obvious changes during 24 h incubation. NH4+ oxidation by nitrifying bacteria may account for about 30% of the total NH4+ utilization (i.e. bacterial+agal) and, assuming oxidation through to NO3?, may supply about 40% of the algal requirements of NO3? in the study area. These results suggest that bacterial nitrification is of potential importance to the nitrogen dynamics of the western Cook Strait, particularly with respect to the nitrogen demands of the phytoplankton.  相似文献   
4.
The main reasons for the high content of inorganic N and its increase by several times in the Changjiang River and its mouth during the last 40 years were analysed in this work. The inorganic N in precipitation in the Changjiang River catchment mainly comes from gaseous loss of fertilizer N, N resulting from the increases of population and livestock, and from high temperature combustions of fossil fuels. N from precipitation is the first N source in the Changjiang River water and the only direct cause of high content of inorganic N in the Changjiang River and its mouth. The lost N in gaseous form and from agriculture non-point sources fertilizer comprised about 60% of annual consumption of fertilizer N in the Changjiang River catchment and were key factors controlling the high content of inorganic N in the Changjiang River mouth. The fate of the N in precipitation and other N sources in the Changjiang River catchment are also discussed in this paper.  相似文献   
5.
根据2005年4~5月在黄海和长江口海域进行的春季底拖网调查,应用稳定同位素方法研究了黄海中南部鯷鱼(Engraulis japonicus)及其可能摄食饵料的碳氮稳定同位素比值,结果表明:(1)黄海中南部鯷鱼的食物组成为不同粒径的浮游动物、太平洋磷虾(Euphausia pacifuca)和仔稚鱼,其中以粒径为500-900μm的浮游动物为主,贡献比例占61%~84%;仔稚鱼贡献比例占16%~21%,较传统胃含物方法分析的结果小;(2)黄海中部海域鯷鱼的碳氮稳定同位素比值平均值较南部海域高,原因可能与各海域的能量来源不同或存在微食物环有关,也可能与不同海域鯷鱼的能量转换途径不一样,即与食物链长短不一有关.  相似文献   
6.
Water column concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) were measured at three different depths in four different locations bracketing the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) along the main channel of a temperate riverine estuary (Winyah Bay, South Carolina, USA). Measurements were carried out over full tidal cycle (over 24 h). Salinity, temperature, current magnitude and direction were also monitored at the same time throughout the water column. Tidally averaged net fluxes of salt, TSS, POC and PN were calculated by combining the current measurements with the concentration data. Under the extreme low river discharge conditions that characterized the study period, net landward fluxes of salt were measured in the lower part of the study area, suggesting that the landward transport through the main channel of the estuary was probably balanced by export out through the sides. In contrast, the net fluxes of salt in the upper reaches of the study area were near zero, indicating a closed salt balance in this part of the estuary. In contrast to salt, the net fluxes of TSS, POC and PN in the deeper parts of the water column were consistently landward at all four sites in Winyah Bay indicating the non-conservative behavior of particulate components and their active transport up the estuary in the region around the ETM.The carbon contents (%POC), carbon:nitrogen ratios (org[C:N]a) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC) of the suspended particles varied significantly with depth, location and tidal stage. Tidally averaged compositions showed a significant increase up the estuary in the %POC and org[C:N]a values of suspended particles consistent with the preferential landward transport of carbon-rich particles with higher vascular plant debris content. The combination of tidal resuspension and flood-dominated flow appeared to be responsible for the hydrodynamic sorting of particles along the estuary that resulted in denser, organic-poor particles being transported landward less efficiently. The elemental and isotopic compositions indicated that vascular C3 plants and estuarine algae were the major sources of the particulate organic matter of all the samples, without any significant contributions from salt marsh C4 vegetation (Spartina alterniflora) and/or marine phytoplankton.  相似文献   
7.
The Mondego estuary, a shallow warm-temperate intertidal system located on the west coast of Portugal, has for some decades been under severe ecological stress, mainly caused by eutrophication. Water circulation in this system was, until 1998, mainly dependent on tides and on the freshwater input of a small tributary artificially controlled by a sluice. After 1998, the sluice opening was effectively minimised to reduce the nutrient loading, and the system hydrodynamics improved due to engineering work in the upstream areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the mitigation measures implemented in 1998. Changes to the hydrodynamics of the system were assessed using precipitation and salinity data in relation to the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients, as well as the linkage between dissolved N:P ratios and the biological parameters (phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations, green macroalgal biomass and seagrass biomass). Two distinctive periods were compared, over a ten year period: from January 1993 to January 1997 and from January 1999 until January 2003. The effective reduction in the dissolved N:P atomic ratio from 37.7 to 13.2 after 1998 is a result of lowered ammonia, but not the oxidised forms of nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite), or increased concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus. Results suggest that the phytoplankton is not nutrient limited, yet maximum and mean biomass of green macroalgae was reduced by one order of magnitude after the mitigation measures. This suggests that besides lowering the water residence time of the system, macroalgal growth became nitrogen limited. In parallel to these changes the seagrass-covered area and biomass of Zostera noltii showed signs of recovery.  相似文献   
8.
A nutrient dynamic model coupled with a 3D physical model has been developed to study the annual cycle of phytoplankton production in the Yellow Sea. The biological model involves interactions between inorganic nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium), phosphate and phytoplankton biomass. The model successfully reproduces the main features of phytoplankton-nutrient variation and dynamics of production. 1. The well-mixed coastal water is characterized by high primary production, as well as high new production. 2. In summer, the convergence of tidal front is an important hydrodynamic process, which contributes to high biomass at frontal areas. 3. The evolution of phytoplankton blooms and thermocline in the central region demonstrate that mixing is a dominant factor to the production in the Yellow Sea. In this simulation, nitrate- and ammonium-based productions are estimated regionally and temporally. The northern Yellow Sea is one of the highly ranked regions in the Yellow Sea for the capability of fixing carbon and nitrogen. The annual averaged f-ratio of 0.37 indicates that regenerated production prevails over the Yellow Sea. The result also shows that phosphate is the major nutrient, limiting phytoplankton growth throughout the year and it can be an indicator to predict the bloom magnitude. Finally, the relative roles of external nutrient sources have been evaluated, and benthic fluxes might play a significant role in compensating 54.6% of new nitrogen for new production consumption.  相似文献   
9.
The dynamics of benthic primary production and community respiration in a shallow oligotrophic, marine lagoon (Fællestrand, Denmark) was followed for 1·5 years. The shape of the annual primary production cycle was explained primarily by seasonal changes in temperature (r2 = 0·67-0·72) and daylength (r2 = 0·63), whereas temperature almost explained all variation in benthic community respiration (r2 = 0·83-0·87). On a daily basis the benthic system was autotrophic during spring and summer supplied by 'new' and 'regenerated' nitrogen and predominantly heterotrophic during fall and winter caused by light and nutrient limitation. The linear depth-relationship between porewater alkalinity and ammonium indicated that the C:N ratio of mineralized organic matter is low in spring and summer (3-6) and high in fall and winter (9-16). This is inversely related to net primary production and thus the input of labile, nitrogen-rich algal cells. Accordingly, mineralization occurred predominantly in the upper 2-5 cm of the sediment. The pool of reactive material (microalgal cells) was estimated to account for 12% of total organic carbon in the upper 3 cm, and had an average turnover time of less than 1 month in summer. Assimilation of organic carbon by benthic animals was equivalent to about 30% of the annual gross primary production. Grazing reduced chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment during summer and spring to values 30-40% lower than in winter, but maintained a 3-4 times higher specific microalgal productivity. The rapid turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen, and important role of benthic microalgae showed that the benthic community in this oligotrophic lagoon is of a very dynamic nature.  相似文献   
10.
wrmcrloxHuman activities related to the population growth and developrnent of industry and rnwhci-pality have led to the incrouing hadings of various POllutants into estudries during the past fewdecades. These increasing edlutant lOadings have caused declined estuallne hedth which can bemereured by a vdriety of indices. In order to obtain solutions to environrnent problerns, re-sources manageTnnt apencies are supporting a holistic approach to envirorirnental management.An effcient strategy t…  相似文献   
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