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1.
Dry valleys are a striking geographic landscape in Hengduan Mountains Region and are characterized by low rainfall, desert type of vegetation and fragile environment. Past efforts and resources have been concentrated mainly on rehabilitation of degraded ecosystem and fragile environment, particularly reforestation, while socio-economic development has been largely overlooked. Despite successes in pocket areas, the overall trend of unsustainability and environmental deterioration are continuing. It is important to understand that uplift of the Tibetan Plateau is the root cause of development of dry valleys, and development and formation of dry valleys is a natural process. Human intervention has played a secondary role in development of dry valleys and degradation of dry valleys though human intervention in many cases has speeded up environmental degradation of the dry valleys. It is important to understand that dry valleys are climatic enclaves and an integrated approach that combines rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and socio-economic development should be adopted if the overall goal of sustainable development of dry valleys is to be achieved. Promotion of niche-based cash crops, rural energy including hydropower, solar energy, biogas and fuelwood plantation is recommended as the priority activities.  相似文献   
2.
成都及附近地区旅游气候资源研究   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
通过对成都及附近等7个地区多年气候资源及人体舒适指数进行分级比较,得出了7个地区的人体舒适指数的时间分布特征及对当地旅游的影响。  相似文献   
3.
The historic era, which in Cumbria begins with the Roman invasion of AD 71, is a frequently neglected period in palaeoecological research, but its study can bring benefits in improving knowledge of landscape history and in understanding the significance and limitations of palaeoecological records. Pollen and geochemical data are presented for late Holocene records from Deer Dyke and Hulleter Mosses in southern Cumbria. The records show initially low levels of anthropogenic impact, followed by a phase of forest clearance and mixed agriculture from the 7th to 11th centuries AD. The timing of these clearances suggests that they were initially Anglo‐Saxon in origin, rather than Norse. Further clearances in the 16th century AD are interpreted as a response to monastic dissolution and late Tudor population pressures; the landscapes reached their contemporary form following extensive clearances in the 17th century AD. Silicon and titanium concentrations at Deer Dyke Moss were used to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric dust loading, which is broadly related to soil erosion. Geochemical influx was found to peak during periods of landscape transition rather than from established land use. This relationship with pollen data is thought to reflect the predominantly low levels of anthropogenic impact in the region, which changes as substantial woodland clearances during the 16th century AD and continuous land use pressure since then have greatly increased the supply of airborne dust. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
Eleven surface soil samples from calcareous soils of industrial areas in Hamadan Province, western Iran were analyzed for total concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb and were sequentially extracted into six fractions to determine the bioavailability of various heavy metal forms. Total Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Pb concentrations of the contaminated soils were 658 (57–5,803), 125.8 (1.18–1,361), 45.6 (30.7–64.4), 29.7 (11.7–83.5) and 2,419 (66–24,850) mg kg−1, respectively. The soils were polluted with Zn, Pb, and Cu to some extent and heavily polluted with Cd. Nickel values were not above regulatory limits. Copper existed in soil mainly in residual (RES) and organic (OM) fractions (about 42 and 33%, respectively), whereas Zn occurred essentially as RES fraction (about 69%). The considerable presence of Cd (30.8%) and Pb (39%) in the CARB fraction suggests these elements have high potential biavailability and leachability in soils from contaminated soils. The mobile and bioavailable (EXCH and CARB) fractions of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils averaged (7.3, 40.4, 16, 12.9 and 40.8%), respectively, which suggests that the mobility and bioavailability of the five metals probably decline in the following order: Cd = Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn.  相似文献   
5.
Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.  相似文献   
6.
Complexity theory has received considerable attention over the past decade from a wide variety of disciplines. Some who write on this topic suggest that complexity theory will lead to a unifying understanding of complex phenomena; others dismiss it as a passing and disruptive fad. We suggest that for the analysis of coupled natural/human systems, the truth emerges from the middle ground. As an approach focused as much on the connections among system elements as the elements themselves, we argue that complexity theory provides a useful conceptual framework for the study of coupled natural/human systems. It is, if nothing else, a framework that leads us to ask interesting questions about, for example, sustainability, resilience, threshold events, and predictability.In this paper we attempt to demystify the ongoing discussions on complexity theory by linking its evocative and overloaded terminology to real-world processes. We illustrate how a shift in focus from system elements to connections among elements can lead to meaningful insight into human-environment interactions that might otherwise be overlooked. We ground our discussion in ongoing interdisciplinary research surrounding Yellowstone National Park’s northern elk winter range; a tightly coupled natural/human system that has been the center of debate, conflict, and compromise for more than 135 years.  相似文献   
7.
Despite threats emanating from the influence of climate and non-climate forcing on the barrier island coastal region of southwestern Nigeria, the extent of the coastal erosion is poorly understood. We report evidence of coastal erosion and sediment accumulation in the region over a 34-year period (1973–2017), using Landsat imagery at intervals of approximately six years. Landsat image corrections and various water-extraction algorithms were used to systematically delineate coastal erosion and accumulation in the area. The region was subdivided into western and eastern subregions separated by Lagos Harbour. In the west, erosion took place during the periods 1973–1979, 1979–1984, 1990–1999 and 2005–2011, whereas in the east, erosion occurred during 1973–1979, 1990–1999 and 1999–2005. Coastal sediment accumulation occurred in the east during 1979–1984, 1984–1990, 2005–2011 and 2011–2017, whereas gains in the west occurred during 1984–1990, 1999–2005 and 2011–2017. The study revealed substantial net erosion of 1 228.1 ha in the region as a whole, over the full period. Sediment accumulation accompanying the coastal erosion appears to be linked to longshore drift. Erosion between 1973 and 2011 was probably attributable to climate change (storms and tidal conditions), longshore drift, the inflow and outflow of water at Lagos Harbour, coastal morphology and, possibly, human impacts. However, the coastal changes between 2011 and 2017 were more obviously associated with human activities, such as development of the Eko Atlantic construction project. Coastal surveillance, together with the use of environmentally sensitive protective measures, could possibly help to reduce coastal erosion in the region. Careful coastal management practices, including artificial nourishing and the installation of resilient structures (e.g. seawalls), should be undertaken to protect human settlements that are already at risk from sea-level rise.  相似文献   
8.
许炯心 《海洋学报》2007,29(5):88-94
以夏季风强度指数和年均气温作为反映气候变化的指数,以人类净引水量和流域水土保持面积作为反映人类活动变化的指标,并以黄河流域为例,研究了三角洲造陆对气候变化和人类活动的响应.研究表明,夏季风强度指数的变化可分为三个阶段:(1)在1951~1963年夏季风强度指数呈持续增强的变化趋势;(2)在1963~1965年夏季风强度指数呈突变式减弱;(3)在1966~2000年夏季风强度指数保持在较低的水平上,且呈缓慢减弱的趋势.年降水量变化与夏季风强度指数有同步关系.从1950到1970年的年均温度在波动中略呈降低趋势,然而从1970年开始年均温度在波动中具有持续上升的趋势.气候变化会导致入海泥沙通量的变化,并可能进一步导致三角洲造陆速率的变化.黄河三角洲造陆速率、入海泥沙通量在1952~1964年均呈增大的趋势,1964年后则呈减小的趋势,在总体上与夏季风强度指数的变化趋势相同.除了气候变化以外,流域水土保持和引水对三角洲造陆也有影响.多元回归分析表明,三角洲造陆速率随夏季风强度指数的减弱而减小,随年气温的升高而减小,随梯田林草面积的增加而减小,随年净引水量的增加而减小,同时还表明,夏季风强度指数、年均气温、水土保持措施面积和人类净引水量对三角洲造陆速率变化的贡献率分别为34.94%,3.80%,53.82%和7.44%.表示气候变化的两个变量的贡献率之和为38.7%,说明气候变化对黄河三角洲造陆过程的影响是不容忽视的.  相似文献   
9.
对冲绳海槽中段 3个沉积岩芯碳酸盐和烧失量的系统分析得知 ,岩芯沉积物的CaCO3含量一般 >1 0 % ,最高含量接近 30 % ,烧失量大都在 1 0 %~ 30 %之间变化 ,反映了该海区处于溶跃面之上钙质生物极为发育的生物地球化学环境。结合δ1 8O曲线所反映的气候环境变化 ,探讨了 1 2 0kaB .P .以来碳酸盐旋回的“大西洋型”演变特点 ,同时对该区沉积地层中的火山热液活动印记作了一定的探讨。  相似文献   
10.
大黄鱼病原弧菌拮抗放线菌的筛选与人工诱变   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
从厦门集美海滩底泥分离得到38株放线菌,用琼脂块法测定它们对大黄鱼病原弧菌-溶藻弧菌和副溶血弧菌的拮抗效果,选择两株拮抗效果较好的放线菌进行诱变,测定诱变后各菌株的抗菌效果,并选择抗菌效果较好的菌株进行第二次诱变,如此反复诱变3次,共得到97株放线菌,结果表明;38株放线菌中的22株对两株病原菌有一定的拮抗作用;用紫外线照射可以获得少量对两株病原菌拮抗作用加强的菌株。  相似文献   
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